Chapter 11 is a detailed record of history that takes us from the time of the Medes and Persians right to the very day in which we find ourselves living.
This chapter frequently uses the terms "king of the north" and "king of the south". It's important to understand that these terms are not referring to any specifc individuals, but rather are used generically to refer to various rulers who were in control of two specific areas - the region of Babylon (king of the north) and the land of Egypt (king of the south). These areas were ruled by different individuals at different times in history, and so whichever ruler was in control of the region of Babylon at any particular time is refrred to as the "king of the north" and whichever ruler controlled Egypt at any particular time is referred to as the "king of the south".
Daniel 11:1 "Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him."
At the end of chapter 10 we find Gabriel talking with Daniel. Here in the first verse of chapter 11 we have the continuation of that conversation between Daniel and Gabriel. There is no break between these chapters, it simply continues on. So we are still at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Let us see what else Gabriel had to tell Daniel.
Even in the first year of Darius, when the Medes and Persians overtook Babylon, Gabriel was there by Darius’ side to confirm/help/establish him and strengthen him. This truly shows that God is ultimately in control of world events. As the writing on the wall sealed the probation of Babylon and God’s protection withdrew from them, He in turn strengthened Darius the Mede to overrun Babylon as seen in chapter 5.
Daniel 11:2 "And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia."
Gabriel now proceeds to give Daniel the understanding of what he was diligently seeking for. What Gabriel is going to show Daniel is the truth, for in chapter 10 it tells us that Gabriel and Michael have the truth.
Yet three kings in Persia - This does not include Cyrus as we find there shall stand up yet three Kings. The word yet in Hebrew means besides, still, henceforth. So we see that there was to come another three Kings after Cyrus. These were Cambyses the son of Cyrus (530-522 B.C.), False Smerdis an impostor who impersonated the real Smerdis to obtain the throne, the real Smerdis had been caused to be killed by his brother Cambyses, (522 B.C.), Darius Hystaspes or Darius 1 who married a daughter of Cyrus (522-486 B.C.).
Fourth shall be far richer - This was Xerxes, or the Ahasuerus of Queen Esther, the son of Darius Hystaspes. Xerxes was far richer than all before him...
Esther 1:3-4 "3 In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him: 4 When he shewed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days."
Strength through his riches...against the realm of Grecia - Because of his wealth, Xerxes was able to stir up an immense army against the warlike Greeks.
According to Herodotus, who lived at that age, his army amassed to 5,283,220 from the East alone, but not content with this, he enlisted the Carthaginians of the West which added another 300,000 men. In total he had raised over five and three quarter million men to go against the Greeks. He defeated the Greeks at Thermopylea, lost the battle of Salamis in 480 B.C. After this he lost at Platea in 479 B.C. The war ended in 467 B.C.
We now skip over nine minor rulers as Xerxes was the last Persian King to invade Grecia.
Daniel 11:3-4 "3 And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. 4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those."
A mighty king - Alexander the Great is easily placed in the prophecy here as you will see from chapters 2, 7, and 8, also, from the facts stated as we continue on.
Great dominion - Alexander finally defeated the Persians at the battle of Arbela in 331 B.C. He continued his campaign all the way to the borders of India and south through to Egypt. His dominion was far greater than that of the Persian empire.
When he shall stand up - When he is at his peak, the height of his power.
Kingdom broken, divided toward four winds:
Alexander died in 323 B.C. Immediately 36 generals scrambled for power and by 314 B.C. Seleucus, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander formed a league against Antigonus who had the largest influence in the remains of Alexander’s realm. The contest ebbed and flowed. Seleucus gained Babylon in 312 B.C. and established a long line of Kings. Lysimacus and Ptolemy assumed the title of Kings in 305 B.C. and Cassander about the same year, so that three years later this league of four planned a campaign against Antigonus which brought on the battle of Ipsus 301 B.C. and definitely established the four division of Alexander’s former kingdom into north, south, east, and west, or the four winds. These four directions are according to Palestine, Daniel’s homeland.
Not to his posterity - Alexander’s relatives were slain so that there was no interference to the ruling of any part of the kingdom. None of the kingdom went to Alexander’s family.
Nor according to his dominion - No one person was to rule with the dominion that Alexander had. This remarkably came true as prophesied.
Plucked up - Cassander took the west, Lysimachus took the north, Seleucus took the east, and Ptolemy took the south.
Others besides those - Others besides Alexander’s posterity/family.
Daniel 11:5 "And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion."
King of the south - Ptolemy Soter, who had Egypt, Palestine and part of Syria in the south, is the King of the south at this point of the prophecy. He was to be strong. He ruled from 323 B.C. to 285 B.C.
One of his princes - One of the mighty kings/Alexander’s princes.
Strong above him, have dominion, great dominion - Lysimacus took over Cassander’s territory and then Lysimacus lost all of it to Seleucus Nicator who now has three quarters of Alexander’s kingdom, leaving Ptolemy in the south with a quarter, Seleucus in the north, Ptolemy in the south.
Daniel 11:6 "And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times."
They shall join themselves - Ptolemy Philadelphus 285 - 247 B.C., the second King of the south, and Antiochus Theos 261 - 246 B.C., the third King of the north, were to join themselves together. How?
King’s daughter of the south - Ptolemy Philadelphus’ daughter was Berenice.
Come to...make an agreement - Berenice was to come to Antiochus Theos and become his wife, to try and join the kingdoms in this way. For the son to be born to this pair was to rule the kingdom. So Antiochus divorced Laodice his wife and married Berenice.
She shall not retain the power of the arm - Berenice was not to retain any power that Antiochus had, as we will see in a moment.
Neither shall he stand - Antiochus was not to stand either. This was true about the two of them. Berenice’s father died in 247 B.C., (Ptolemy Philadelphus’) and when word carried to Antiochus he immediately threw Berenice out and took back his ex-wife Laodice, with her two sons Seleucus Callinicus, and Antiochus Hierax. Laodice then had Antiochus Theos poisoned, 246 B.C., and had Seleucus Callinicus pronounced as King in his stead.
Nor his arm - Antiochus’ son that he had with Berenice was not to retain the strength.
She shall be given up, they that brought her - Berenice was put to death by the orders of Laodice and also all of Berenice’s Egyptian attendants that she had with her.
He that begat her - Marginal reading says whom she brought forth. The son that Berenice had to Antiochus was also murdered at the same time. This completely cleared the path for Laodice’s son, Seleucus Callinicus, to rule.
He that strengthened her – Ptolemy Philadelphus (her father) was the one strengthening Berenice, for whilst ever he was alive Berenice was in safety.
Daniel 11:7-9 "7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land."
Branch of her roots - Her roots refers to Berenice’s roots, which is her father Ptolemy Philadelphus.
One stand up in his estate - One was to stand up in Ptolemy’s estate/office. This was his son, Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy Euergetes. Euergetes means benefactor. He now is seated on the throne.
Come with an army - Euergetes, with his army, was marching to the aid of his sister but was to late.
Enter into fortress of king of north and prevail - Euergetes and his army continued to march northward, and with many of the cities opening their gates to him, because of their hatred toward Seleucus Callinicus, the King of the north, he was soon in possession of a large portion of land. Euergetes gained Seleucia, the capital of Syria, and a large part of Asia Minor and would have continued to gain more if it were not for a call to come back to Egypt because of trouble there.
A large portion of verse 8 simply deals with the booty that Euergetes collected whilst on his conquest. This conquest was in the year 246 B.C.
Continue more years than king of north - Euergetes reigned from 247 B.C. to 222 B.C., whereas Seleucus Callinicus reigned from 246 B.C. to 227 B.C.
Verse 9 reaffirms that Euergetes, King of the south, would come into Seleucus Callinicus’, King of the north’s territory and then return to his own.
Daniel 11:10 "But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress."
His sons - The King of the north’s (Seleucus Callinicus) sons, Seleucus Ceraunus and Antiochus Magnus.
Shall be stirred up - These two sons, Seleucus being the older, were stirred up because of the land that had been taken from them.
Assemble a multitude of great forces - They gathered an army together to avenge what had happened.
One shall certainly come - Seleucus Ceraunus was a weak leader destitute of money and unable to keep his army in obedience to him. He only reigned for 3 years and was then poisoned by two of his generals. This left Antiochus Magnus to be proclaimed as King, and it was he who came to avenge.
Overflow and pass through - Antiochus took charge of the army and retook Seleucia, also recovering Syria. Some places were taken by force and others by treaty.
Stirred up - Talking of the ongoing revenge as Antiochus overcame in battle Nicholaus the Egyptian general and had thoughts of invading Egypt itself. This revenge peaks in verse 11.
Daniel 11:11 "And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand."
King of the south - Euergetes had passed off the scene by now and Ptolemy Philopater had taken the throne of the south in Egypt.
Moved with choler - Philopater was moved with choler because Antiochus Magnus was getting to close.
Come forth and fight with him...king of north - Philopater, south, went out to meet Antiochus, north, at the battle of Raphia near Gaza in 217 B.C.
He shall set forth a great multitude - He is referring to the King of the north, which is Antiochus. The great multitude that Antiochus set forth consisted of the following; 62,000 foot, 6000 horse and 102 elephants.
But the multitude...given into his hand - Philopater met Antiochus with a larger army. Even though he had less elephants, (only 73 elephants) his total army with foot and horse amounted to a greater amount than his opponent. Philopater defeated Antiochus by slaying 10,000 foot, 3000 horse, and taking captive over 4000 prisoners. Philopater suffered the lose of only 700 horse and 1400 infantry. So the multitude was given into the hand of the King of the south, Philopater.
Daniel 11:12 "And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it."
When he hath taken away the multitude - After this fight previously mentioned when Philopater has defeated Antiochus.
Heart shall be lifted up - Philopaters heart was lifted up by his success.
He shall cast down many ten thousands - On his way back home, Philopater stoped at Jerusalem to sacrifice to the God of Israel. He also tried to enter within the temple itself, but was struck with terror and confusion of mind and had to be carried from the place as if he were half dead. He left Jerusalem filled with great wrath against the whole nation of the Jews because of what had happened. Philopater sought revenge upon the Jews many times but was unsuccessful, until in 213 B.C. there was an insurrection of the Egyptians of which he made occasion to gain revenge upon the Jews, slaying 40,000 of them at Alexandria.
But...not be strengthened by it - This did nothing in gaining more power or strength, for it turned many of his own nation against him.
Daniel 11:13-15 "13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches. 14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall. 15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand."
King of north...return...greater multitude than the former - Antiochus Magnus was to return with a greater army than before.
After certain years with a great army - After fourteen years peace between Philopater and Antiochus dissolved. Philopater died in 204 B.C. from intemperance and debauchery leaving his son Ptolemy Epiphanes to take the throne at the age of 4 or 5 years.
Seeing this, Antiochus thought it an excellent opportunity to enlarge his kingdom by coming upon Egypt and upon such a young King. He raised an immense army “greater than the former” (for he had collected many forces and acquired great riches in his eastern expedition) and set out against Egypt, expecting to have an easy victory over the infant King. However, Antiochus was not the only one who rose up against the infant Ptolemy, Agathocles his prime minister having possession of the King’s person, and conducting the affairs of the kingdom in his stead was so dissolute and proud in the exercise of his power that the provinces which before were subject to Egypt rebelled; Egypt itself was disturbed by seditions and the Alexandrians, rising up against Agathocles, caused him, his sister, his mother, and their associates to be put to death.
With much riches - Antiochus had successful campaigns against the eastern parts of Iran and India, he also managed to snuff out rebellion in other parts of his kingdom. Through this he had acquired much wealth and military support.
Many stand up against the king of the south - Stand up against Ptolemy Epiphanes. During this time of Antiochus wanting to invade Egypt, he made a league with King Philip of Macedonia. The two of them agreed to divide the Egyptian empire by taking what was the closest and most convenient parts to them. Philip was to take Caria, Libya, Cyrenaica, and Egypt with Antiochus taking all the rest. Antiochus entered into Coele-Syria and Palestine and was soon the conqueror.
At the same time that this was going on, the provinces of Egypt were rebelling against Agathocles the prime minister of Egypt who was conducting the affairs of the kingdom for the young King. The power that he could exercise was going to his head, with Egypt itself being disturbed by seditions. The Alexandrians rose up and caused him, his sister, mother, and their associates to be put to death.
Robbers of thy people – Now we see Pagan Rome coming into the prophecy. Rome is going to become the King of the North and it will remain the King of the North until it comes to its end, until it falls when Jesus comes the second time.
The word robbers ("periyts" in Hebrew) means destroyers. Rome is here introduced for the first time into chapter 11 as the "robbers of thy people". A look at the history of Rome shows why the term "robbers" fits so well, not only as destroyers but because the Italian peninsula at that time in history was known to be where a band of robbers and thieves hid out. They would strike out from their base in Italy and, not only steal gold and booty, but they were famous for stealing wives and women. They were known throughout that area as thieves and robbers. They came mainly from Greek heritage; Italy was basically a place for them to hide out. So when we see the term "robbers" applied to them its very fitting, "The robbers of thy people".
Gabriel is now introducing to Daniel who would be the ones to finally destroy his people, the Jews. From chapter 9 of Daniel we can see that the destroyers of the Jews were indeed Rome.
Shall exalt themselves - Rome sent Scopas to lead the Egyptian forces to Palestine in 202 B.C. He took back Coele-Syria and Palestine and brought all of Judea into subjection to the authority of Egypt. This was done because Rome had accepted the guardianship of Epiphanes the young King of Egypt. So here we see Rome coming into the picture. Verse 14 says there would many stand up against the King of the south at this time. Not only did this happen immediately after the King died and left his kingdom to his children, but there was there a struggle in Egypt itself to try to take control.
Establish the vision - With Rome coming onto the scene at this time, it establishes or demonstrates the truth of previous visions showing that Rome was going to be a world player.
But they shall fall - Scopas was finally defeated.
King of north shall come - This is a carry on from the previous verse. Antiochus Magnus was to come back at Scopas.
Take most fenced cities - Antiochus was quick to make steps in recovering Palestine and Coele-Syria from the hands of the Egyptians. He took back the lost territory including Sidon, which was, in situation and defenses, one of the strongest cities of those times. We shall see how he did this now.
Arms of south not withstand - Ptolemy Epiphanes could not withstand him.
Neither his chosen people - Scopas was sent to meet Antiochus near the sources of the Jordan. Scopas was defeated and chased to Sidon where a siege was laid against it by Antiochus. Three of the ablest generals of Egypt went to aid against the siege, but without success. With famine and an opponent Scopas could not cope with, he had to surrender on the dishonorable terms of life only. Scopas and his 10,000 men were let go stripped and naked.
Neither...any strength to withstand - No person could withstand the assault of Antiochus Magnus.
Daniel 11:16 "But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed."
But he - Even though Scopas, who came against the north on behalf of the south, could not stand against Antiochus Magnus, King of the north, we see that Rome will come back with power under the rulership of Pompey. Now we will see Rome start to show its power.
Cometh against him - Rome, under Pompey, was to come against the King of the north, who at that time was Antiochus Asiaticus 69 B.C.
According to his own will - This was true about Rome with Pompey at its head. Pompey conquered Syria and took it out of the hands of Asiaticus, the King of the north, in 65 B.C. making it a province of Rome.
This verse here is saying that as the King of the North, Assyria decides to make its move on Egypt, even though the Romans had said, "leave Egypt alone", Rome goes into battle against them and Pompey goes through Assyria and levels it. We need to look closely at who is the King of the North and who is the King of the South.
None shall stand before him - None could stand in the way of Pompey.
Here in the first part of this verse, when Rome overcomes Assyria, Rome becomes the King of the North. (The rule is the power that controls the geographical area) Egypt is the King of the South, and the power that controls the geographical area of Babylon is the King of the North. Babylon was the center of the Assyrian kingdom.
When Rome in verse 16 came in the Assyrians could not stand against them and Rome took control of that area—by the rule established here in Daniel 11, Rome became the King of the North. They swept through Assyria and they followed on and took the "Glorious Land" of Israel as well. This is talking about the Roman army taking control of the country of Israel.
He shall stand in the glorious land - In 161 B.C. the Jews made an alliance with the Romans. But in 63 B.C. two competitors, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, were struggling for the crown of Judea. Pompey came up against Jerusalem, with Aristobulus’ people wanting to close the city up, and Hyrcanus’ wanting to open it to Pompey. The latter of the two being in the majority, opened the city up to Pompey. At this point the people of Aristobulus went to the temple on the mount, ready to defend it. Pompey finally broke through the wall of the temple and took, by force, the temple site. Thus Jerusalem became a province of Rome in 63 B.C.
Pompey comes back to Jerusalem to deal with these people that were resisting his power. At the end of three months, the breach was made in the walls sufficient for an assault. In the terrible slaughter that ensued 12,000 were slain. It was an affecting sight, observes the historian, to see the priest engaged at the time in the Divine service with calm hand and steady purpose pursue their accustomed work apparently unconscious of the wild tumult until their own blood was mingled with that of the sacrifices they were offering.
After putting an end to the war, Pompey demolished the walls of Jerusalem, transferred several cities from the jurisdiction of Judea to that of Syria and imposed tribute on the Jews. For the first time, Jerusalem was by conquest placed in the hands of Rome. That power which was to hold the Glorious Land in its iron grasp until it had utterly consumed it. The point that has a bearing on the final verses in this chapter is when Rome conquered the "Glorious Land" in verse 16. They weren’t overthrowing the religion of the Jews, or destroying the temple, they were taking control of the country of Israel, the Glorious Land. We have to remember this if we are going to correctly divide the Word of God when we get to the end verses.
By his hand shall be consumed - Never again did Judea or Jerusalem have its independence. The iron hand of Rome held it until they destroyed it by the hand of Titus in 70 A.D. Previous to this, Rome had conquered Macedon and Thrace. Now with the overthrow of Syria and Judea the northern part of Alexander’s kingdom was now ruled by Rome, and Rome now becomes the King of the north.
Daniel 11:17 "He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him."
He - That is, Rome lead by Julius Caesar.
Set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom - The word within this verse means "against" in Hebrew. So we would read this verse as such, set his face to enter against the strength of his whole kingdom. Julius Caesar set his face to enter the whole of Alexander’s kingdom and take it. At this time, the only portion left of Alexander’s kingdom unconquered by Rome was Egypt.
Rome had already taken the kingdom of the North when Assyria fell, and then it had taken the kingdom of the Glorious Land (Jerusalem) and now it decides it’s going to take the King of the South, and when it does that, it will have taken the whole kingdom of Alexander the Great. 3 Areas Conquered In Bible as we can see from Daniel 8:9.
This "Little Horn" has been correctly understood for years as Pagan Rome; "which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land". Rome had to overcome three geographical obstacles, to become the fourth kingdom of Bible prophecy.
Daniel 11 is simply building upon that truth. Verse 16, it takes Assyria, to the east of Rome, and then it takes the Glorious Land or the Pleasant Land in chapter 8. Its next point of attack is the King of the South which in verse 17 is describing when Julius Caesar goes into Egypt.
Upright ones with him - Ptolemy the 12th and his sister Cleopatra were to rule co-jointly in Egypt, until there was a dispute between them. Julius Caesar came down with 800 horses, and 3200 foot soldiers to settle the quarrel. The war started to rage with Achillas trying to drive Caesar out of Alexandria with 20,000 men. Caesar was able to repel this attack, but the Egyptians then tried to destroy Caesar’s fleet. In turn Caesar set their fleet to the flames, and some of those vessels came to close to the quay and set alight several buildings. One of these was the famous Alexandrian library containing nearly 400,000 volumes, this was destroyed by flames.
The attack became worse, and Caesar realized he had an insufficient amount of men. Caesar sent for help in the neighboring countries. A large fleet came from Asia Minor, also Mithridates set out for Egypt with a large army raised from Syria and Cilicia. Antipater, the Idumean, joined him with 3000 Jews, or the upright ones. The Jews held the passes into Egypt, and permitted no interruption. Without this, Caesar would have failed. For the arrival of this army decided the contest.
Ptolemy, attempting to escape, drowned in the river Nile. Alexandria and all of Egypt submitted to the victor. Rome had now entered into and absorbed the whole of the original kingdom of Alexander by 47 B.C. Cleopatra remained ruler until 30 B.C. and it was at that time that Egypt was made a province of Rome.
Pompey had been placed in the protectorship of the children, Cleopatra and Ptolemy, and when Ptolemy had Pompey killed, then Julius Caesar continued his pursuit that he had begun after Pompey, right into Egypt. He then takes the position that since Pompey is removed from the protectorate, he's now the protectorate and he tries to settle some of the dissent in Egypt about whether Ptolemy or Cleopatra is going to rule the kingdom: "and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him".
The daughter of women, corrupting her - Caesar gained Cleopatra and had one son with her. It is said that his passion for her was the reason behind the campaign of the Egyptian war. Historians differ in this affair. Some say Cleopatra was Julius Caesar's mistress, others that he married her. Some claim the royalty in Egypt was passed down through the female side of the family, so the reason that Julius Caesar, and later Mark Anthony married Cleopatra, was because it made them the King of Egypt and that's what they wanted.
With this understanding, that the blood line passed down through the female side in Egypt, then this verse is clear that says, "and he shall give him the daughter of women (Cleopatra), corrupting her:"
Not stand on his side, neither be for him - Cleopatra afterward joined herself to Antony, the enemy of Augustus Caesar, and exerted her whole power against Rome.
The most important theme through these verses is that Rome has come to control the world at this point.
The Bible wants to be very clear about this sequence of leadership in Rome; Julius Caesar, then Caesar Augustus then Tiberius Caesar, this sequence of Caesars, so clearly identified in these verses, is what places Rome as the only possible entity that could fulfil this prophecy. Remember that this vision is about Rome, so there is some very clear history shown here. We see here Julius Caesar coming into Egypt, finding all kinds of problems that he has to resolve. After he fought some of the battles there and seemed to have brought it under control, he turns to the islands. Verse 18 describes his march through the Mediterranean where he very quickly brought those islands and sea-coasts under the authority of Rome.
Daniel 11:18 "After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him."
After this...turn his face unto the isles - After this, Julius conquered all the remaining coast lands, Spain, North Africa, and Pharnaces King of Cimmerian Bosporus.
But a prince - This prince was a man by the name of Brutus.
Reproach - We are jumping ahead in the verse a little to look at this word reproach so as to give better understanding to the previous parts of the verse. Rome was a republic, but after all the conquests of Julius Caesar the title of King was offered to him. This would be a big reproach to the republic, to now become a monarchy.
For his own behalf - Brutus showed friendship to Caesar and his desire to be King. Caesar desired in his heart to be King but knocked the offer back twice because of the disagreement of the populace.
Shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease - Brutus was the one who was going to cause the kingship offered to Julius to cease. So Brutus was the one behind the whole affair. Without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him - Brutus had no desire to be King and caused the whole idea to fall back onto Julius Caesar. This comes to light in the next verse.
Daniel 11:19 "Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found."
He shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land - Julius turned his face back to Rome after his conquests.
But he shall stumble and fall, and not be found – He returns to Rome a hero, and back at Rome, he finally accepted the offer of kingship. Julius came into the Senate and sat upon his golden throne to receive his title. It was now that he was assassinated at the foot of the statue of Pompey by Cassius, Brutus and others. He was pierced 23 times with a dagger, causing him to stumble and fall as the Bible states. He could not be found as he was dead. This took place in 44 B.C.
Daniel 11:20 "Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle."
Stand up in his estate - Augustus Caesar was the successor of his uncle Julius Caesar.
Raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom - Augustus Caesar is clearly this raiser of taxes. He called for the taxation that brought Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem (Luke 2:1-3). This is one of the most easily recognizable events in the Bible. These verses here in Daniel 11 more than anything else are saying that this history can’t be mistaken, therefore the kingdom under discussion in these verses, is Rome. We need to understand this to understand the Bible correctly. This is the Pagan Roman Empire. The Augustan age, where Rome was at peace, justice maintained, luxury curbed, discipline established, and learning encouraged. It was known as the golden age of Roman history.
Few days he shall be destroyed - Eighteen years after the raising of taxes Augustus died. This seemed only a few days to the prophet, who was looking down centuries of the world's history.
Neither in anger, nor in battle - Augustus died peacefully in his bed, at Nola, where he had gone to seek repose and health. In August 19, 14 A.D. at the ninth hour of the day he died. 35 days before his 75th year of age. There is some implication that his fourth wife, Livia, poisoned him to have her son, Tiberius, rule in his stead.
Daniel 11:21 "And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries."
In his estate shall stand up a vile person - In the estate of Augustus, there was one who would stand up being a vile person. This rightly fits Tiberius Caesar. He was a vile, wicked, cruel, and licentious person. He was only intoxicated once in his life which was a state of continual intoxication.
They shall not give the honour of the kingdom - The people of Rome did not respect Tiberius nor give him any honour.
Come in peaceably...obtain the kingdom by flatteries - Livia entreated Augustus to set Tiberius as his successor, but was unsuccessful the first time. The reason why is that the rulership was to go to Agrippa, a very virtuous and much respected Roman. Also Augustus said that Tiberius was too vile a person to wear the purple of Rome. But Agrippa died, forcing Augustus to choose again. Livia once again entreated Augustus. By now Augustus was weakened with age and ill health and consented.
Daniel 11:22 "And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant."
Tiberius went on to lead 7 successful military campaigns in Germany and in the east on the frontiers of Armenia and Parthia. But the overflower was to be overflown himself. Leaving his favorite island, Tiberius stopped at a country house near the promontory of Micenum. It was here on the 16th of March 37 A.D. he sunk into a lethargy in which he appeared dead. Caligula was preparing an escort to take possession of the empire, when his sudden revival threw them into consternation. Marco, the praetorian perfect, caused him to be suffocated with pillows at this time. Tiberius died being 78 years of age.
Also the prince of the covenant - This can only refer to Messiah the Prince who was going to confirm the covenant with many for one week (Daniel 9:25-27). So Jesus Christ was to be broken during the reign of Tiberius Caesar. According to Luke 3:1-3 Tiberius was reigning when John the Baptist was preaching, which he started in 26 A.D. Jesus was baptized in 27 A.D. and crucified in 31 A.D. So Jesus was crucified in the 17-18th year of Tiberius’ reign, before Tiberius died in 37 A.D.
This confirms the 70 week prophecy of Daniel 9.
Daniel 11:23-24 "23 And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people. 24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time."
League made with him - We now flash back to the starting place of the league made with the Jews in 161 B.C. It places us back in the history of the previous verses.
He shall work deceitfully - Rome worked deceitfully as they never kept the league, conquering the Jews in 63 B.C. These characteristic of Rome earlier in the book of Daniel, are that this fourth kingdom would be different. One of the differences is that Babylon, Medo-Persia, and Greece conquered through their military might. Rome conquered through its military might as well, but Rome also conquered through "politics". They formed “leagues" and it starts here in verse 23 with the league they formed with the Jews. They made agreements with countries to be their protector, like they did in Egypt earlier, to protect the young King of Egypt. They formed a league with Greece to protect Greece from the Macedonians and the Assyrians. They took control of countries through politics and military might.
Shall become strong with a small people - Rome was only small at this stage when the league was made, but it was to rise to power even though it was small. This was one of the “differences" of this fourth kingdom, it becomes "strong with a small people" (they originated the concept of the “protection racket").
He shall enter peaceably...fattest places...fathers have not done - Rome entered upon some of the land by alliances or request, as we have already seen that Ptolemy asked Rome to be guardian of Egypt. All other nations gained their power by conquest alone. This was not so with Rome. They entered upon the best of lands, securing them without war. They began as a small people, but if you’re going to conquer a country by signing a peace treaty with it, which ultimately brings that country under your control, you don’t need a large army; you just need a diplomatic core.
This is one of the characteristics of the fourth kingdom as it carries on in its second phase. In verse 24 it carries on this description; "He shall enter peaceably upon the fattest places of the province". For example, when it took control of Greece it was through peaceable measures and "he would do what his fathers had not done or his father’s fathers". This is saying that Alexander the Great, the Medes and the Persians, Babylon, being the fathers, the grandfathers and the great grandfathers, never conquered this way through politics, they conquered only through warfare. Among them the prey, and spoil, and riches - Rome protected all their provinces from their enemies and showed kindness and leniency toward them. All gained the advantage under the Roman rule.
He shall scatter among them the prey and the spoil and riches - This was one of the characteristics of Rome; when they conquered a place, the booty was divided between the soldiers of the army, also some of the countries that agreed to form treaties with them, were also at first given some of the riches. Later on they came under the slavery-type dominance of Rome. Rome’s technique was to share the wealth, and as they took the wealth the Roman power rose to conquer the world. 31 BC - 330 AD Rome rules from Rome.
Forecast his devices against the strongholds, even for a time - A time in Bible prophecy is equal to a year which is 360 days (see the story of Noah). Also a day in prophecy equals 1 year (Numbers 14:34, Ezekiel 4:6). So this being a prophetic time it is 360 years. This time period would have to start when Rome was complete ruler over all kingdoms. This was in 31 B.C.
If you add 360 years to this date, you come to the year 330 A.D. where the time prophecy comes to a conclusion. It was in this year that Rome ceased to be the city from where all ruling was done and the base of the kingdom. It was at this time that Emperor Constantine moved the seat to Byzantium, later called Constantinople, in the west. In the beginning of the Roman Empire, they were going to forecast their devices from the city of Rome for 360 years and when the 360 years was up, this stronghold of Rome was no longer going to be a stronghold.
Daniel 11:25-27 "25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. 26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain. 27 And both of these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."
He shall stir up his power...against king of south - Verse 25 describes the final conquest of Egypt, which includes the battle of Actium in 31 BC. Octavian [Augustus Caesar], Mark Antony, and Lepidua formed the Triumvirate to avenge the death of Julius Caesar. Lepidus was finally pushed out of the triumvirate leaving Mark Antony and Octavian.
Ultimately, Mark Anthony goes to Egypt and fell victim to the arts and charms of Cleopatra in such a way that it appears he can’t control himself. He started to bestow upon her province after province to please her. Octavian thus had no trouble declaring war upon Egypt and Cleopatra, even though the war was really against Antony as neither of them was satisfied with only half the kingdom.
King of south shall be stirred up...very great and mighty army - The King of the South at this time, isn’t one of the line of Ptolemy, its Mark Anthony. Antony assembled a fleet of 500 ships with 200,000 foot and 12,000 horsemen, at Samos.
But he shall not stand - Octavian assembled only half the amount of ships with 80,000 foot. Unlike Antony, all of Octavian’s troops were hand chosen and only experienced seamen were picked.
As soon as the season permitted, both armies were put in motion on both sea and land. The battle was fought Sept 2, B.C. 31, at the mouth of the gulf of Ambracia, near the city of Actium. Cleopatra became frightened by the din of battle and fled when there was no danger, taking sixty ships with her. Antony, out of his infatuation for her, went after her.
They that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him - First Cleopatra deserted him with sixty ships. Then his army, being disgusted at his infatuation for her, went over to Octavian’s side who was more than happy to take them. Also when Antony came to Lybia, he found that the forces that were left there under Scarpus had declared to Octavian/Caesar. Antony committed suicide by stabbing himself.
His army shall overflow - Antony’s army went over to Octavian.
Many shall fall down slain - Before evening closed the whole of Antony’s fleet was destroyed, and most of the men and all of the treasure on board perished.
In verse 27 we see the final outcome of the conflict. Both Octavian and Antony were formally in alliance. Yet whilst professing friendship to each other, they were both striving for universal dominion. Their conversation to each other was lies spoken at one table, for they were hypocrites in professing friendship of one another. All councils did not prosper. Octavian eventually came out the victor, with Antony killing himself and also Cleopatra. But Rome’s end was still to be at the time appointed.
Daniel 11:28 "Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land."
Return into his land with great riches – After this battle of Actium Caesar - Octavian/Augustus, with great success over Egypt, takes its riches with him back to Rome. After conquering the King of the South, he then returns to Rome and is established as the King of the earth, the fourth kingdom of Bible prophecy, in the year 31 BC.
Against the holy covenant and he shall do exploits – The holy Covenant - God's promise of abundance and blessing to His people. There are two "returnings" in this verse. The first "returning" is when he returns from conquering the King of the South, and is established as the King of the earth, the fourth kingdom of Bible prophecy in the year 31 BC. Then it says, “his heart shall be against the holy covenant and he shall do exploits and return to his own land"; and this "returning" is from the next conquest, the military campaign of Rome going down into Israel and ultimately destroying Jerusalem and the temple in AD 70. This is why his heart is against the holy covenant. After he conquers Egypt and becomes the King of the world, his next military campaign ends up in Israel and his heart is against the holy covenant in the sense that he’s going to destroy the temple in Jerusalem and the people that once had been God’s people.
Under Vespasian, in 66 A.D., the Romans invaded Judea, and took the cities of Galilee, Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum, where Christ had been rejected. They destroyed the inhabitants, and left nothing but ruin and desolation. Disorders at Rome caused the temporary withdrawal of the Roman armies, as foretold by Christ in Matthew 24:15 and Luke 21:20. The only reason why the righteous could flee was because Vespasian was called back to Rome. On his returning to Rome, he was made emperor and his son Titus took up the work of subjugating Jerusalem.
Titus came upon Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and in five months had destroyed it and the temple. 110,000 Jews perished, and 97,000 were taken captive. The city was later levelled by Tarentius Rufus with the foundations of the temple being ploughed up also. The duration of the entire war was 7 years, and 1,462,000 persons are said to have perished over this period. The survivors were banished, sold, and dispersed into all parts of the world. The Jews cry of His blood be on us and upon our children was definitely fulfilled.
Rome did do exploits upon the promised land/Palestine/Judea and Jerusalem, or Canaan as it was formally known as, and then returned to its own land.
Daniel 11:29 "At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter."
At the time appointed - The time appointed, is the end of the time prophecy of 360 years which ended in 330 A.D. when the capitol of the Roman Empire was moved from the city of Rome to Constantinople by Constantine, which was the end of the supremacy of Rome.
The 360 years of prophetic time had come to its close and from that point on the ability of Rome to control the world at will through its military might and its political prowess ceased. So in verse 29, it says at the time appointed time, or in in 330 A.D. when he (Constantine) moved the capitol, then all the problems begin for Rome.
He shall return - The "he" here is Constantine.
Come toward the south - Constantine came toward Licinius.
But it shall not be as the former, or as the latter – Will not be like the "former or latter" means when Rome attempts to defend itself and maintain its authority from Constantinople. The capitol of the kingdom has changed; he won’t have the ability to be successful in his military campaigns from that point on. It won’t be as the former; it won’t be like when he went into Egypt and dealt with Mark Anthony and had such great success, nor will it be as the latter; when he went into Judea and destroyed the temple in A.D. 70 and wiped out Israel. He had success then, but from 330 A.D. his military success wasn’t going to be the same as the former or the latter. Now it was an in house war between Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East, as the Roman empire was divide into east and west.
Licinius lost two battles and a truce was established lasting from 314 A.D. to 323 A.D., when war again broke out. Licinius was defeated and finally executed, 324 A.D. This left Constantine at the head of the Roman world. Byzantium (later called Constantinople), as it fell into Constantine’s hands, he decided to make it his capital instead of Rome. So he moved the seat of power from Rome to Byzantium in 330 A.D.
Rome ceased to be and was no longer the place where he ‘forecast his devices against the strongholds’ (verse 24). The Roman Empire was weakened by this move and now starts to disintegrate.
With these East and West divisions the western empire comes under attack from barbarians out of the north. The islands of the Mediterranean that Rome had formerly controlled now become launching points for some of the powers designed by God to bring Rome down and contribute to the environment that needed to be developed for Rome to turn into the ten horns and the three horns to be removed as in Daniel 7.
Daniel 11:30 "For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant."
Ships of Chittim shall come against him - The Vandals, from northern Africa, under Genseric, raged against the Roman empire with their naval forces. The Vandals repeatedly visited the coasts of Spain, Liguria, Tuscany, Campania, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Venetia, Dalmatia, Epirus, Greece, and Sicily. Italy itself was not spared from Genseric as well. Genseric’s career was from 428 A.D. to 468 A.D. Their continued military success was weakening Rome.
He shall be grieved and return - There were desperate efforts made to dispossess Genseric of the sovereignty of the seas, the first by Marjorian, the second by Leo, both of which proved to be utter failures; and Rome was obliged to submit to the humiliation of seeing its provinces ravaged, and its "eternal city" pillaged by the enemy.
Indignation against the holy covenant - Rome was to rise up and have indignation against the holy covenant, or the true Gospel or those who hold fast the true profession of faith. But how did they do this? This process began under Constantine when he converted to the Christian faith and Christianity no longer was persecuted within the empire. Here we see Constantine and his "indignation against the holy covenant" as he introduces the first Sunday laws. We are told that when the United States passes a national Sunday law, national apostasy will be followed by national ruin. After Constantine issues his Sunday laws the Roman Empire begins to crumble. In former years when Rome warred against their enemies they found victory — but no longer.
Intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant – The Bishops of Rome, who had forsaken the true Gospel by the dedication of Chapels to angels, saints, and martyrs. Superstitious ceremonies were woven into everyday life. Wakes and banquets for the dead were celebrated; the relics of the saints were collected and adored, and they pushed aside the council of Christ by uniting church and state.
The Emperors of Rome now began to unite with the Bishops of Rome. This move of uniting the church with the state was done to increase the stability and power of the state:
Rome proceeded until in order to exterminate the heresy of Arianism (the Arians did not believe in the pagan trinity) held by the three powers that overran the "Eternal City" namely the Heruli, Goths and Vandals, Emperor Justinian decreed in 533 A.D. a decree, that the Bishop of Rome was the head of the entire Church and the corrector of heresies. This aspect of church and state however, was not made up of the true and pure followers of Bible truth. This amalgamation of church and state was the product of years of compromise that had slowly begun to permeate more and more of the professed Christian world. Scattered amongst the provinces were faithful believers who refused to bow the knee to the newly established Bishop of Rome as head over the church of God.
Daniel 11:31 "And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate."
Arms shall stand on his part - Arms/force/power was to stand on the part of those who have forsaken the covenant, the bishops or Church of Rome. In 496 A.D. Clovis, King of the Franks converts to Catholicism, recognizing the Bishop of Rome as head over all the church, corrector of heretics and vicar of God on earth. He even ackowledges the blasphemous title "vicar of God on earth" (Vicarius Filii Dei) of the Pope, which brings about the little horn's desire to "speak great words against the most high" as Daniel 7:25 depicts. Thus Clovis places his armies at the disposal of the Pope to defend the faith, expand her borders and correct the heresies currently so popular in the Western Empire. The nations of Europe soon followed his example, except for three, The Huruli, the Vandals and the Ostragoths, which were finally defeated and wiped out. Notice that when Pagan Rome rose to world dominion, it had to conquer three areas; when Papal Rome rose, it had to conquer three nations. This will be significant towards the end of this study.
Pollute the sanctuary of strength - strength = the Heavenly Sanctuary. Pollute also means to "profane" (See Strong's #H2490). Rome itself was converted to the Catholic faith, converting to Roman Catholicism while claiming it to be Christian boldly profaned the message of the Gospel to the core of many unsuspecting hearts. It mixed vile Paganism with the truth of Christ's Word and trampled His truth underfoot.
Take away the daily - Between 496 and 508 A.D., Clovis used his military forces to convert idolaters to Romanism, through alliances, capitulations, and conquests, the Arborici, the Roman garrisons in the West, Brittany, the Burgundians, and the Visigoths, were brought into subjection. They gave up their pagan attachments, but only to perpetuate its abomination in another form called Christianity. All images, statues and rituals of Paganism were then sanctioned as "Christian" icons. The Christianity of the Catholic Church was and still is only baptized paganism.
The last vestiges of paganism were removed for the Church, by Clovis, by 508 A.D.
Shall place the abomination that maketh desolate - The political Pope began to stand supreme from inside the church placing the Roman Pope as the head of the church as well as the State, he was declared a "god on earth" thereby making the faith of all that agreed desolate. The title "god on earth" was a stance formally held by Roman Emperors. Thus although the pagan religion of the empire had now given way to the Christian religion, there was a difference in theology that prevented the Pope from assuming the title so recently bestowed upon him by Emperor Justinian.
The Vandals, Ostrogoths and Heruli, all avowed Arians (did not believe in a trinity), refused to acknowledge the Bishop of Rome as head over the churches and opposed the Catholic Emperor. Justinian sent his army with General Belisaris to take care of the opposition. After defeating the Vandals, and the Heruli only the Ostrogoths remained. The Goths retreated and allowed Belisaris to enter Rome unopposed. They then in a better season laid siege to the city: which they held for over a year. However, the siege that included the entire nation in its attempt was a bitter failure and that remnant of Goths that remained abandoned the city to Belisaris and disappeared from history. Thus by the year 538 A.D. there remained no opposition to the Pope of Rome to take the seat of the Empire to himself. Hence the prophetic statement that the little horn would "subdue three Kings" in Daniel 7:24 was fulfilled. The Pope now stood unopposed as "god on earth.
We see, in this verse, a clear link to Daniel 8:11-13, dealing with the transition between Pagan Rome and Papal Rome.
Daniel 11:32 "And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits."
Such as do wickedly against the covenant - Those who forsake the truth of God and follow the papal apostasy.
He - This is now a reference to the Papacy as the King of the North, Pagan Rome has given way to Papal Rome.
Corrupt by flatteries - Those who followed the Papacy, in forsaking the truth of the gospel, were often led on in their zeal by the bestowment of wealth, position and honors.
But - in contrast to the above mentioned ones, we now see an alternate group.
The people that do know their God - Obviously in contrast to the Papal sympathizers, these are the faithful who are true to the covenant.
Shall be strong and do exploits - This is describing the 1260 years of Papal rule from 538 AD to 1798. Here we are shown the “church in the wilderness"—the true believers who had to flee to the mountains in those days. It says here that they “know their God". What a wonderful tribute to those faithful ones! This verse tells us how those faithful during the dark ages of Papal tyranny, kept the pure religion alive and performed marvelous acts of self sacrifice and religious heroism in behalf of their faith. These included such groups as the Waldenses, Albigenses and Huguenots.
It also tells of the many ways that wicked men, under Satan's control, took the lives of those dear faithful believers. Daniel 7:25 says, "they (the faithful) would be given into his hands" for these years. Have you ever wondered why God allowed this cruel power to do all this in the name of religion? Well, God has a purpose — He has allowed Satan to show what his kind of government is like. All the angels that remained in heaven and the other worlds that did not sin can see just what Satan’s rule brings. He can’t fool them anymore. But why is Satan still fooling people on earth? Maybe it's because it is taking a longer time for people on earth to learn the lessons because most of them still choose to believe Satan’s lies and enjoy his so-called pleasures. God’s true people will know that Satan is a liar and a murderer. I hope it can be said of each one of us that "we know our God".
Daniel 11:33-35 "33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days. 34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries. 35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed."
They that understand shall instruct many - The faithful witness of the self-sacrificing ones that we have just read about, missionaries that kept the light of truth alive during the ages of persecution and Papal control.
Fall by the sword, flame, captivity and spoil many days - Persecution was kindled in horrendous amounts to stop the spread of the true gospel and the exposure of the falsity of the professed church that sat in the city of Rome. Whether it be by death of the sword, burnt at the stake, imprisonment, or by the confiscation of goods, the Papacy would and did use all in an attempt to rule out so called heresy. The many days are a reference to the much repeated 1260 years of Papal Supremacy over Europe.
They shall be helpen with a little help - The Protestant Reformation brought a shortening of the days of persecution in many areas. It provided relief from the absolute control heretofore swayed by the Papal armies.
But many shall cleave to them with flatteries - Even in the reformed churches, the flattery of trusting in the state to defend the faith rather than in the God of heaven, was tried again with great success. Thus the battles started to be between Protestant governments and Catholic Governments. To escape from this continued apostasy those who believed in the Biblical principle of separation of church and state fled to the United States of America, the stronghold of religious liberty for all. There true Protestantism was to be nurtured.
Shall fall, to try them and to purge and to make them white - Many faithful men and women were martyred to purify the church from those who had joined it for the wrong reasons. A cursory study of church history reveals that only during times of persecution was the church actually pure. At all other times it was and is full of apostasy and corruption.
Even to the time of the end - The time of the end, would begin when the time of this persecution would cease. In 1798 the Pope was taken prisoner by Berthier of the French army, and to all intents and purposes the power that had fuelled the inquisition and the persecution of heretics was stopped. Although such persecution has existed and still does exist today in many places, the scope and control of such persecution is extremely limited in contrast to its jurisdiction under the Dark Ages. Thus we are now given the exact date of the beginning of the time of the end, 1798 A.D.
Daniel 11:36-39 "36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. 37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all. 38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. 39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain."
The king - The king referred to here, is the king of the north of the previous verses, which is the Papacy. As Daniel, when discussing the issue of Pagan Rome, outlined secular events involved in the rise of this power and then retraced the time and outlined specific characteristics of Pagan Rome, so in discussing Papal Rome here he outlined the rise of the power in verses 30-35 and then retraces his steps and outlines the characteristics of the Papacy in verses 36-39.
Shall do according to his will - As seen in previous passages of Daniel, the Papacy was able to rule over the kings and queens of Europe according to its own will and pleasure.
Shall exalt himself - This the Papacy did in placing itself in the power to actually excommunicate Kings and emperors who disagreed with her desires and laws. Iin 2 Thessalonians 2:4 we read of the Man of Sin who also exalteth himself, this is recognized as the Papacy.
Magnify himself above every God - This is true where at point of death, no other god or power could be acknowledged but the Pope of Rome. Also in Daniel 8:25, 11, we see that the Papacy would magnify himself in his heart and also to Jesus Christ the Prince of the host, for he claims to be the Vicar of Christ.
Shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods - Blasphemy against God. Blasphemy is taking the attributes of divinity to oneself when a man (John 10:30-31) claims to have the right to forgive sins. (Mark 2:5-7) These two things the Papacy did (Daniel 7:25, Revelation 13:5).
Shall prosper - Shall succeed at this task of subjugating the entire world of its time and gaining material possessions (Daniel 8:12,24).
Till the Indignation be accomplished - This power is an affront or indignity against the God of Heaven. The great indignation is the substitute of Sunday sacredness, or the idol Sabbath, instead of the true Sabbath. In fact, the idol Sabbath is instituted to draw the people away from God the creator to the false god. The prophecy states that it will succeed in its endeavor until the indignation be accomplished or fulfilled. When it has fulfilled its allotted time and opportunity, then the end will come.
That that is determined shall be done - What God has foretold shall be accomplished, the saints shall receive the kingdom and the wicked shall be destroyed regardless of how powerful or invincible they might seem to be at any point in history (Revelation 14:9-10, Daniel 7:11).
Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers - His fathers worshipped the God of the scriptures, the God of heaven, however, the papacy regarded the gods of the pagans under a "Christian" garb. Also it claimed that the wafer was actually God and thus it is worshipped as though it is God, carried about as any pagan deity might be in celebrations and processions, and ultimately eaten that the devotee might possess it. The Papacy shows Jesus nearly always either as a wafer in a box or monstrance — a baby in Mary's arms — or hanging dead on a cross. So this power doesn't regard the God of their fathers, or Jesus, or any God, because he sets himself above all Divine authority.
Nor the desire of women - Celibacy in the priesthood (1 Timothy 4:1-3 - forbidding to marry).
The Hebrew word for "woman" is also translated "wife". Thomas Newton observes that this passage would be more properly rendered "the desire of wives".
Nor regard any God for he shall magnify himself above all - This is often referred to the French Atheistic revolution, however, in context it is applied to the fact that he magnifies himself above all gods, including the God of heaven who he supposedly represents (2 Thessalonians 2:4). In the documents of the Catholic Church itself, they claim the prerogative to make laws and decrees that God himself is bound to obey. Thus placing themselves inclusively above all gods whatever and wherever. In Daniel 7:25 he thinks to change God’s immutable law. In doing this you are magnifying yourself above God and disregarding His desires.
Honour the God of Forces - To understand this verse we need to look at the Hebrew words. "God of forces" in this verse it can also mean "goddess of fortresses." Now if you see a picture of the goddess Dianna that Paul talks about; you will see that she has a castle on her head. Yes she wears a tower for a hat. She was called Goddess of Fortresses. This went back in time to the first "goddess" Semeramis, the wife of Nimrod, who first built a city with a wall around it to protect it.
The goddess Cybel is also depicted this way. It was the city of Ephesus that was especially attached to worshipping Dianna. And it was at the council of Ephesus that the Roman church decided to declare Mary the "Mother of God" and "Queen of Heaven". Now the early Roman church needed to bring in a Mother and Child symbol into the church as the sun-worshippers loved their goddess of fortresses and her child, the sun-god, Apollo. So they changed the name to Mary, mother of Jesus. They created a new god, "whom his fathers knew not"; and honored her with money and so on.
A god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour - Obviously a reference to the ultimate counterfeit to Christ, which is none other than the Virgin Mary who has been highly exalted in the Catholic Faith, and we saw Pope John Paul II dedicate his entire pontificate to her.
With gold, and silver - These gods they honour with millions of pounds worth of jewellery and costly shrines which have been multiplied in every part of the world.
Whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory - Even in places where there seemed no desire to follow the pagan practices of Catholicism, Mary worship began to take hold. In fact, in the religion of the American Indians, the Tibetan Dalai Lama and even the Hindus there are prophecies and expectancies of a woman who is to come and bring peace to the world. Thus the world was being prepared in the most unexpected places to accept Catholicism as the world spiritual leaders. There is a large scale movement within the Catholic Church to establish the Virgin Mary in an exalted position of co-mediatrix, co-redemptrix with Christ.
Cause them to rule over many - Millions of Rome’s devotees are held in bondage by this worship of saints and the Virgin Mary, by these idols and images.
Shall divide the land for gain - The papacy claim the right to divide the entire world among whom it pleases. Take for example the fact that when the Normans under Henry II took Ireland, it was Pope Adrian IV who "gave him permission" to do so. Also in regards to the new world discoveries, the entire new world was divided by the pope, between the Spanish and the Portuguese.
For a price (margin) - This is very true in regards to the Papacy as everything they do is "for a price". It can bring forgiveness "for a price", it can help the dead who are supposed to be in purgatory "for a price", and "for a price" it can sprinkle water on infants etc.
Papal Rome outlined the rise of their power in verses 30-35 and then the characteristics of the Papacy are outline in verses 36-39.
Daniel 11:40 "And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over."
At the time of the end - Now when Daniel says "time of the end", he means the end of a time prophecy. What time prophecy tells us about Papal Rome and what it will do? It is the 1260 year time prophecy. It ended in 1798. If what we said about the "King of the north" being Papal Rome is true, we should see something happen in 1798 — somebody should "push at him".
King of the south - At this point we see the re-entering of the King of the south into the field of conflict. For a long period the world has been dominated by one power, which is the King of the north alone.
Push - This word translated "push" means to wage war against, like we see the Ram in Daniel chapter 8 “Pushing westward, and northward, and southward etc. and none could deliver out of his hand; this meant he was attacking and making war against those areas. And we can know that the power that pushed—is the power the Bible calls “King of the South". Atheism, the attitude expressed by Pharaoh, King of Egypt who said: "Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go” (Exodus 5:2).
Push at him - Did it happen? Yes — France, after declaring there was no God (the word for this is Atheism), sent Napoleon’s General Berthier to Rome and captured the pope, taking away all his power to rule as a King. This happened in 1798. The next question is — when did Papal Rome strike back against "atheism"?
We now have a long period of time that passes between the King of the South pushing and the King of the North coming like a whirlwind. Down through the years these two powers have been conflicting with each other. The first thing happened in 1798 — the next part happened in 1989 when the Pope with the help of USA brought about the fall of the "Atheist" power, the USSR.
The king of the south at this time period was Russia - the Jacobeans that had started the French Revolution had gone underground and manifested itself in the Bolshevik Revolution, they still carried on the same characteristics of France, Atheism (against God). But the King of the North wanted his power back, and so he now returns with intelligence/soldiers/America, and destroys/obliterated/overthrows the king of the south. Just like in 508 when Clovis King of France pledged himself to help the Papacy, and the prophecy says, "Arms shall stand on his part" (Daniel 11:31), so in 1984, "arms have chosen to stand" on the part of the rising King of the North power, the Papacy; when secret agreements were made between the Pope and the USA president which at that time was Ronald Ragan..."With chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over".
Chariots and Horsemen - means military strength and "ships" refers to economic sanctions.
Come against him like a whirlwind - We look for an attack which is like a mighty storm, a tornado sweeping away all within in its path. This is just exactly what was used to bring USSR down.
Shall enter into the countries - This denotes that there is more than one country under the control of the King of the south or communism. He entered into the “countries", plural—the USSR was made up of several countries, not just one, and indeed, the joint power of the Vatican and the USA certainly did Overflow and pass over - A combination of military and economic strength was used to totally sweep away the King of the south or communism. This was done with the uniting of Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II to bring in a five part plan to bring down communism and the collapse of the Soviet economy. Here we start to see the healing of the deadly wound, and the Papacy gaining ascendancy over the entire world.
And just as when first Pagan Rome and later Papal Rome came to rule the world and had to conquer 3 areas; so as the King of the North begins his last rise to power, he has three areas to overthrow also. And the first one is already conquered. What was it? It was the wall between communism and the west — the geographical area of USSR. It fell in 1989. What are the other two areas that have to be overcome before the deadly wounded beast again rules the world? They are the wall between Church and State in the USA, the Constitution must be overruled — the geographical area of USA; The third is the wall of national sovereignty among nations — the geographical area of the United Nations of the world.
Have you noticed the pressure to put forward religious laws lately? Have you noticed the move to do away with separate nations and have a One World Government and a World Court? A One World Currency. These walls are tottering to ruin. What happens when they fall? A law will be passed to FORCE all to keep holy the Sunday of Rome and desecrate the Bible's seventh-day Sabbath.
First the law will be passed in the USA and then it will force the world to follow and do the same thing. Does the United Sates now have power to force nations to do what she wants? Oh yes, indeed she has, and most states in the USA already have what is called Blue Laws tabled and ready to enforce, ready to bring in the Sunday Laws of Rome.
Daniel 11:41 "He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon."
Shall enter into the glorious land - It is important to realise what is meant here by the glorious land — it is NOT literal Israel, as these are end-time prophecies and apply to "spiritual" Israel (before the cross prophecy is local and literal in application; after the cross prophecy is world-wide and spiritual in application) and it is NOT the same as the Glorious Holy Mountain which represents God’s truth and His true and faithful ones. The Lord provided a goodly or glorious land for ancient Israel, and He provided a goodly or glorious land for modern Israel. The purpose for both was the same. It was an asylum for His people, and a depository for His pure religion:
The Lord has done more for the United States than for any other country upon which the sun shines. Here He provided an asylum for His people, where they could worship Him according to the dictates of conscience. Here Christianity has progressed in its purity. The life-giving doctrine of the one Mediator between God and man has been freely taught. God designed that this country should ever remain free for all people to worship Him in accordance with the dictates of conscience. He designed that its civil institutions, in their expansive productions, should represent the freedom of gospel privileges. "Glorious Country" in this prophecy points us to the nation of United States. When a national Sunday law is passed in the United States, this country will symbolically join hands with Rome. It will also, symbolically begin to march, or follow, in the steps of Rome:
Many shall be overthrown - Those Who Join Hands - In this verse the word (countries) is supplied. Many "countries" will not be overthrown at the time of the national Sunday law, just many people. The previous verse refers to many countries as the former countries of the Soviet Union became prey for Rome, and the next verse (42) speaks of countries as it describes the whole world coming under the dominion of Rome. However, this verse is dealing only with the national Sunday law in the United States, and at this point, only many (people) will be overthrown, not many countries.
Who are the people that will be overthrown? They are those who have professed to believe in the gospel but they have been influenced by the world and now they give up the faith and follow with those making void the law of God. We see many overthrown but we see some that escape. Servants of God, endowed with power from on high with their faces lighted up, and shining with holy consecration, went forth to proclaim the 3 angels messages from heaven. Souls that are scattered all through different religious bodies will answer this call, and the precious souls will be hurried out of the doomed churches, as Lot was hurried out of Sodom before her destruction.
Edom, Moab and the children of Ammon - These are the age old enemies of Israel. Thus as the final crisis develops many will see the light of truth, even in places where it seems people are hardened in sin, wickedness, and Catholicism, and they will "escape" from the Papal doctrines and will join with God’s faithful people (Psalms 137:8, Isaiah 11:11-16).
These shall escape out of his hand - That is out of the hand of the King of the north - the modern Papacy. It is interesting to note that the word "escape" in this verse is different than the word translated "escape" in the very next verse. The people who escape this national Sunday law escape by "slipperiness", and the verse says, escape out of his hand. The definition of this word brings to mind the type of slipperiness when one cannot hold onto a bar of soap in a bath of water. It slips right out of one’s hand. So, Ammon, Moab, and Edom will respond to the loud-cry message and stand for the truth refusing to obey man-made laws that conflict with God's Ten Commandments.
Daniel 11:42 "He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape."
Shall stretch forth his hand upon the countries - This is all the countries of the world.
Egypt shall not escape - This is not talking about the literal country of Egypt. Egypt is used in Bible prophecy to represent two things - the secular world at large and atheism in particular. So he controls the world, not just the churches. There are many who say, "Well, I am not involved with all this religious stuff so it won’t affect me". But we are assured here that he is going to control all the countries of the world, not just religious people, but all people. Thus this reference is to state that after a Sunday law is enforced all the religions of the world will unite to accept it. Even secular countries or non-Christian countries will come under the Papal decree enforced through her alliance with the United States of America.
Daniel 11:43 "But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps."
Power over treasures, gold and silver and precious things of Egypt - Now this verse is full of symbolic meaning—Power over the treasures; this shows that this despotic power will control the financial world — economic sanctions and control on a level never before possible! We have seen that Egypt refers to the world at large, so, this is referring to economic power. The Papacy will control all trade etc. in the world, through such laws as the prohibition to buy or sell without the mark of the beast (going along with the Papacy - Revelation 13:16-17).
Libyans - The ancient Libyans lived on the fringe of the desert and always looked longingly towards Egypt with its fertile Nile valley etc. Thus Libya was very poor.
Ethiopians - The Ethiopians were always wealthy due to their gold mines in their mountains, and their wealth in cattle, ivory, hides and ebony. Also traffic from central Africa entered Egypt through Ethiopia. Thus Ethiopia represents the affluent Western World.
So, Libyans and Ethiopians likewise have symbolic meaning; Libya was very poor in Bible times and Ethiopia was very rich. So here it is saying that both the rich and the poor of the earth are going to be in step with the king of the north, the Papacy and those that back him. They are all going to go along with him.
Daniel 11:44 "But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many."
Tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him – This is the Loud Cry of the fourth angel of Revelation 18, which comes against the Papacy’s attempt to control the entire world and bring it under its false teachings. This group who are giving the Loud Cry are the only ones who stand in the way of full control for the Papacy. Thus their strong Biblical message under the power of the Latter Rain of the Holy Spirit (see Revelation 18) causes much consternation and frustration for the Papacy. As seen before many will accept this message and "escape" from under its tyranny. Moreover, it is this message that will enrage the king of the north, whom we have seen, in the end time events, represents the Papacy. These final scenes will be rapid ones.
Go forth with great fury to destroy and utterly to take away many - The beginning of the latter rain will occur around the time the national Sunday law will be passed in the United States, but it will continue to accelerate and to grow until the close of human probation. The preceding verses illustrate the final steps of the Papacy; they have not focused specifically on what God's people are doing while the pope is taking control of the world — but verse 44 does. The tidings which come from the East and North are the glad tidings of Christ’s righteousness that are swelling into a loud cry, and giving the world its final message of warning to obey God and keep His Commandments including the fourth. This message will go forth as the pope takes control of the world. As he does so, he will begin to deal with the troublers in his midst, eventually leading to a worldwide death decree that all who refuse obedience to the man-made laws are to be put to death — to utterly make away many. The final death decree against those who will not accept to worship the beast and his image – Sunday.
Daniel 11:45 "And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him."
In the glorious holy mountain - some Bible versions say "in" and some "and" - "and" makes more sense in the context of palace and seas, so "between the seas and the glorious holy mountain".
Plant the tabernacles of his palace - That is the seat of his influence, his control.
Seas - Water represents people and nations (Revelation 17:15).
Glorious holy mountain - Represents Jerusalem, which spiritually is God's Remnant Church.
Between - The Papacy plants its influence between the people of the world who are following him and God's people who are giving the final message of truth. He does this hoping to prevent any more people hearing the gospel and being saved.
Yet he shall come to his end and none shall help him - As outlined in Revelation 18 when the judgment of God falls upon modern Babylon, for her sins, there will be none to support or defend her then. Throughout her career she has always relied on others to wage her wars etc. for her, but this time there will be no one and she along with those who follow her will be destroyed.
At this point, the angel Gabriel, having outlined the history from the time of Persia to the time of the first coming of Christ, delineating all the secular events, proceeds to go back to the initial Jewish interaction with Rome and brings down a direct line of events to the final triumph of the church and the second coming of Christ. The first section outlined the rise of Rome upon the scene of history until it reaches its zenith as the fourth world kingdom, and then as is common in this chapter, we are taken back over the same history but this time outlining the character of Rome and its direct relationship to God’s people.
Daniel 12 verses 1-2 should be on the end of Daniel 11:
At this point, when Michael/Jesus stands, it is to bring to an end all sin and wickedness on the earth. The judgment is finished and the judge is to make His triumphant appearance in the clouds of Heaven.
Which resurrection will you take part in?